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In Windows XP Professional TCP/IP, 32-bit addresses are used to identify each node in the network.This means that every interface on every device has its own address.For example, a user wanting to connect multiple Windows XP Professional–based computers in a home network can use the Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) feature to allow each computer to automatically assign itself a private IP address.The user does not need to configure an IP address for each computer, nor is a DHCP server needed.For more information about APIPA, see “Types of IP Address Assignment” later in this chapter.Computers on a network using authorized private IP addressing can connect to the Internet through the use of another computer with either proxy or network address translator (NAT) capabilities.
If this attempt is not successful, the IP address is returned to the database and made available to other DHCP clients.
The server can also be set up to provide configuration options for DHCP clients, including addresses of DNS and WINS servers, gateway addresses, and other information.
DHCP provides an efficient IP configuration option for larger networks, providing simplified client configuration and reuse of IP addresses.
The IANA has reserved a certain number of IP addresses that are never used on the global Internet.
These are used for networks that do not want to directly connect to the Internet but nevertheless require IP connectivity.