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The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).
Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957.
Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.
French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city.
Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim.
Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition.After the Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront.During the mid- to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights.By the 1970s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn.A large number of high rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this time period.